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Each contest in the Elementary Division consists of 5 short answer questions covering one topic each contest; the topic for each contest is listed below. The time limit for the 5-question test is 30 minutes. More information about this division is available in this presentation.

Each contest in the Junior, Intermediate, and Senior Divisions has two parts: a take home 72-hour time limit programming problem and a set of short answer questions. Each short answer test consists of 2 questions on each of the first two topics listed below and 1 question on the third topic for a total of 5 questions. The time limit for the 5 question test is 30 minutes.

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Mastering this topic is essential for systems programming, programming in assembly language, optimizing code, and hardware design.

## Operators

### Bitwise Operators

The logical operators are not (~ or \$\neg\$), and (&), or (|), and xor (\$\oplus\$). These operators should be familiar to ACSL students from the Boolean Algebra and Digital Electronics categories.

• not is a unary operator that performs logical negation on each bit. Bits that are 0 become 1, and those that are 1 become 0. For example: ~101110 has a value of 010001.
• and is a binary operator that performs the logical and of each bit in each of its operands. The and of two values is 1 only if both values are 1. For example, 1011011 and 011001 has a value of 001001. The and function is often used to isolate the value of a bit in a bit-string or to clear the value of a bit in a bit-string.
• or is a binary operator that performs the logical or of each bit in each of its operands. The or of two values is 1 only if one or both values are 1. For example, 1011011 or 011001 has a value of 111011. The or function is often use to force the value of a bit in a bit-string to be 1, if it isn't already.